Essenes were a mystic Jewish sect during the Second Temple period, originating during the Maccabean revolt. They held possessions in common, something also made by Jesus' apostles. 
Their requirements were in some respects more exacting than those of the Pharisees. They had adopted many Persian beliefs and practices, lived as a brotherhood in monasteries, refrained from marriage, and had all things in common. They specialized in teachings about angels.  Many of the Essenes tolerated the theory of reincarnation, that men may reap in one incarnation what they have sown in a previous existence.