Treason—the “selling out” or betrayal of one’s tribal associates—was the first capital crime. Cattle stealing was universally punished by summary death, and even recently horse stealing has been similarly punished. 
Many ancient rulers, including Hammurabi and Moses, recognized that many crimes, particularly those of a grave sex nature, should be punished by burning at the stake.  Moses prescribed death penalty for ghost cultists.  Romans denied Jews right to inflict death penalty without the approval of a Roman tribunal.  Jesus declared that the state has the right of self-defense in the manner of its own choosing, even with death penalty. 
In the most developed continental nation of a neighboring planet numerous crimes aside from murder, including betrayal of governmental trust, also carry the death penalty, and the visitation of justice is sure and swift.